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Table of Content

This is a four-parts article. There are few sections here.

Part One
  • Preface: Test Bed
  • Getting Started With Docker
  • Package Management: RPM Frontend, Get Help, DNF Shell
  • Updating System: OS Release, Repository List, System Upgrade, Extra Commands
  • Package IRSIF: Install, Removal, Query Search, Show Info, Install Feature, List File
  • What's Next
Part Two
  • Dependency: Help, Dependency, Reverse Dependency, Test, Tree
  • Group: Group List, Group Info, Group Install, Beyond Group
  • Repositories: repolist, repoinfo, repo-pkgs, --enablerepo, Mirror
  • What's Next
Part Three
  • Plugin: List, Install, Help, Config Manager Example
  • History: The Log File, DNF History
  • Hold Package: Example, Add Lock, Remove Lock
  • Clean Up
  • Build from Source
  • Miscellanous: Downgrade, dist-sync
  • What's Next
Part Four
  • Build from Source: Requirement, Example, Extract, Dependencies, Build, Install
  • Inspect Package: rpmlint, rpm -Qpl, rpmls, rpm2cpio
  • Conclusion

Dependency

There are two main topics in dependency, dependency itself, and reverse dependency. Beside these two, there are other topic as well, such as managing conflict that we do not cover here.

Help

DNF has a repoquery help that show all dependency related options.

$ dnf help repoquery

search for packages matching keyword
...
  --whatconflicts REQ   show only results that conflict REQ
  --whatobsoletes REQ   show only results that obsolete REQ
  --whatprovides REQ    show only results that provide REQ
  --whatrequires REQ    shows results that requires package provides and files REQ
  --whatrecommends REQ  show only results that recommend REQ
  --whatenhances REQ    show only results that enhance REQ
  --whatsuggests REQ    show only results that suggest REQ
  --whatsupplements REQ
...
  --conflicts           Display capabilities that the package conflicts with.
  --enhances            Display capabilities that the package can enhance.
  --provides            Display capabilities provided by the package.
  --recommends          Display capabilities that the package recommends.
  --requires            Display capabilities that the package depends on.
  --requires-pre        Display capabilities that the package depends on for
                        running a %pre script.
  --suggests            Display capabilities that the package suggests.

Docker DNF: Help Repoquery

Dependency

Package that required by: such as man-db need less and other.

This dependency information can be achieved by repoquery --requires command. This will show required parts of the package.

$ dnf repoquery --requires man-db
Last metadata expiration check: 0:27:23 ago on Sat Aug 26 13:49:15 2017.
/bin/sh
coreutils
grep
groff-base
gzip
less
libc.so.6(GLIBC_2.17)(64bit)
libgdbm.so.4()(64bit)
libpipeline.so.1()(64bit)
libz.so.1()(64bit)
rtld(GNU_HASH)

Docker DNF: Repoquery Requires

Reverse Dependency

Package that require: such as less needed by man-db or other.

This reverse dependency require repoquery --whatrequires command.

$ dnf repoquery --whatrequires less
Last metadata expiration check: 0:29:36 ago on Sat Aug 26 13:49:15 2017.
GMT-0:5.4.2-3.fc27.i686
GMT-0:5.4.2-3.fc27.x86_64
R-core-0:3.4.1-4.fc27.i686
R-core-0:3.4.1-4.fc27.x86_64
Singular-0:4.1.0p3-6.fc27.x86_64
backup-manager-0:0.7.10-22.fc27.noarch
c-graph-0:2.0-12.fc27.x86_64
colordiff-0:1.0.18-2.fc27.noarch
git-core-0:2.14.1-2.fc27.x86_64
libguestfs-1:1.37.21-2.fc28.i686
libguestfs-1:1.37.21-2.fc28.x86_64
libguestfs-tools-c-1:1.37.21-2.fc28.x86_64
man-db-0:2.7.6.1-5.fc27.x86_64
octave-6:4.2.1-4.fc27.2.i686
octave-6:4.2.1-4.fc27.2.x86_64
rpmreaper-0:0.2.0-13.fc27.x86_64

Docker DNF: Repoquery What Requires

Test

Removing less would remove man-db. And also remove any unused dependency.

$ dnf remove less
Dependencies resolved.
====================================================================
 Package         Arch       Version              Repository    Size
====================================================================
Removing:
 less            x86_64     487-5.fc27           @rawhide     309 k
Removing depended packages:
 man-db          x86_64     2.7.6.1-5.fc27       @rawhide     1.9 M
Removing unused dependencies:
 groff-base      x86_64     1.22.3-11.fc27       @rawhide     3.7 M
 libpipeline     x86_64     1.4.2-3.fc27         @rawhide     106 k

Transaction Summary
====================================================================
Remove  3 Packages

Freed space: 6.0 M
Is this ok [y/N]: 

Docker DNF: Test Dependency

Tree

Most people love tree

This rpmreaper is an RPM tool rather than DNF tool.

$ dnf install rpmreaper

Docker Fedora: rpmreaper


Group

Is this docker Minimal Install ? I always wonder what inside theis Fedora docker Container. RPM group help me understand this riddle.

Group List

We can see Minimal Install group as below.

$ dnf grouplist
Last metadata expiration check: 2:12:21 ago on Wed Aug 23 11:50:45 2017.
Available Environment Groups:
   Fedora Custom Operating System
   Minimal Install
   Fedora Server Edition
   Fedora Workstation
   Fedora Cloud Server

Docker DNF: Group

Group Info

And there is this Core group as below.

$ dnf group info "Minimal Install"
Last metadata expiration check: 2:13:24 ago on Wed Aug 23 11:50:45 2017.
Environment Group: Minimal Install
 Description: Basic functionality.
 Mandatory Groups:
   Core
 Optional Groups:
   Guest Agents
   Standard

Docker DNF: Group

And at the most bottom, there are only Packages as below.

$ dnf group info core
Last metadata expiration check: 2:14:07 ago on Wed Aug 23 11:50:45 2017.

Group: Core
 Description: Smallest possible installation
 Mandatory Packages:
   audit
   basesystem
   bash
   coreutils
   cronie
   curl
   dhcp-client
   dnf
   dnf-yum

Docker DNF: Group

Group Install

Now we know, that not all the Core packages are installed, as some packages not required by the container.

$ dnf group install core
Last metadata expiration check: 2:07:09 ago on Wed Aug 23 11:50:45 2017.
No match for group package "ppc64-utils"
Dependencies resolved.
=============================================================================
 Group     Packages                                                        
=============================================================================
Marking packages as installed by the group:
 @Core     curl                     dnf-plugins-core            dnf        
           sssd-common              policycoreutils             glibc      
           NetworkManager           openssh-clients             systemd    
           dracut-config-rescue     openssh-server              rootfiles  
           plymouth                 selinux-policy-targeted     dhcp-client

Docker DNF: Group

Beyond Group

You can even remove group of packages as you can read in manual, or upgrade only for specific group.


Repository

A few DNF repository commands.

Repository List

$ dnf repolist    
Last metadata expiration check: 0:07:48 ago on Mon Aug 28 18:12:32 2017.
repo id  repo name                                                     status
*rawhide Fedora - Rawhide - Developmental packages for the next Fedora 61447

Docker DNF: Repository

All repository.

$ dnf repolist all
Last metadata expiration check: 0:06:27 ago on Mon Aug 28 18:12:32 2017.
repo id                         repo name                      status
fedora                          Fedora 28 - x86_64             disabled
fedora-cisco-openh264           Fedora 28 openh264 (From Cisco disabled
fedora-cisco-openh264-debuginfo Fedora 28 openh264 (From Cisco disabled
fedora-debuginfo                Fedora 28 - x86_64 - Debug     disabled
fedora-source                   Fedora 28 - Source             disabled
*rawhide                        Fedora - Rawhide - Development enabled: 61447
rawhide-debuginfo               Fedora - Rawhide - Debug       disabled
rawhide-source                  Fedora - Rawhide - Source      disabled
updates                         Fedora 28 - x86_64 - Updates   disabled
updates-debuginfo               Fedora 28 - x86_64 - Updates - disabled
updates-source                  Fedora 28 - Updates Source     disabled
updates-testing                 Fedora 28 - x86_64 - Test Upda disabled
updates-testing-debuginfo       Fedora 28 - x86_64 - Test Upda disabled
updates-testing-source          Fedora 28 - Test Updates Sourc disabled

Docker DNF: Repository

Consider examine the /etc/yum.repos.d/.

$ ls -l /etc/yum.repos.d/
total 20
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root  707 Aug 16 19:38 fedora-cisco-openh264.repo
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 2103 Aug 16 19:38 fedora-rawhide.repo
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1403 Aug 16 19:38 fedora-updates-testing.repo
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1345 Aug 16 19:38 fedora-updates.repo
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1332 Aug 16 19:38 fedora.repo

Docker DNF: /etc/yum.repos.d/

Repository Info

$ dnf repoinfo
Last metadata expiration check: 0:08:34 ago on Mon Aug 28 18:12:32 2017.

Repo-id      : rawhide
Repo-name    : Fedora - Rawhide - Developmental packages for the next Fedora
             : release
Repo-revision: 1503851723
Repo-updated : Sun Aug 27 16:35:23 2017
Repo-pkgs    : 61447
Repo-size    : 59 G
Repo-metalink: https://mirrors.fedoraproject.org/metalink?repo=rawhide&arch=x86_64
  Updated    : Mon Aug 28 18:12:32 2017
Repo-baseurl : http://ftp.jaist.ac.jp/pub/Linux/Fedora/development/rawhide/Everything/x86_64/os/
             : (13 more)
Repo-expire  : 21600 second(s) (last: Mon Aug 28 18:12:32 2017)
Repo-filename: /etc/yum.repos.d/fedora-rawhide.repo

Docker DNF: Repository

or just

$ dnf repoinfo rawhide

Consider inspect the /fedora-rawhide.repo

$ cat /etc/yum.repos.d/fedora-rawhide.repo
# These packages are untested and still under development. This
# repository is used for development of new releases.
...

[rawhide]
name=Fedora - Rawhide - Developmental packages for the next Fedora release
...

[rawhide-debuginfo]
name=Fedora - Rawhide - Debug
...

[rawhide-source]
name=Fedora - Rawhide - Source
failovermethod=priority
#baseurl=http://download.fedoraproject.org/pub/fedora/linux/development/rawhide/Everything/source/tree/
metalink=https://mirrors.fedoraproject.org/metalink?repo=rawhide-source&arch=$basearch
enabled=0
repo_gpgcheck=0
type=rpm
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-fedora-$releasever-$basearch
skip_if_unavailable=False

Docker DNF: /etc/yum.repos.d/fedora-rawhide.repo

Now you know that you can edit directly.

Repository Packages

You can use repo-pkgs, it is just an alias to repository-packages.

$ dnf repository-packages rawhide list installed
Installed Packages
bc.x86_64                       1.07.1-3.fc27               @rawhide
fish.x86_64                     2.3.1-6.fc27                @rawhide
groff-base.x86_64               1.22.3-11.fc27              @rawhide
htop.x86_64                     2.0.2-4.fc27                @rawhide
less.x86_64                     487-5.fc27                  @rawhide
libpipeline.x86_64              1.4.2-3.fc27                @rawhide
libstdc++.x86_64                7.1.1-7.fc27.1              @rawhide
man-db.x86_64                   2.7.6.1-5.fc27              @rawhide
nano.x86_64                     2.8.6-3.fc27                @rawhide
ncdu.x86_64                     1.12-5.fc27                 @rawhide
rpmreaper.x86_64                0.2.0-13.fc27               @rawhide

Docker DNF: Repository

Or even disabled repository.

$ dnf repository-packages rawhide-source list | grep herbstluftwm
herbstluftwm.src                      0.6.2-8.fc27                rawhide-source

Docker DNF: Repository

And info for each repository

$ dnf repository-packages rawhide info | less
Last metadata expiration check: 0:14:24 ago on Mon Aug 28 18:12:32 2017.
Installed Packages
Name         : bc
Version      : 1.07.1
Release      : 3.fc27
Arch         : x86_64
Size         : 225 k
Source       : bc-1.07.1-3.fc27.src.rpm
Repo         : @System
From repo    : rawhide
Summary      : GNU's bc (a numeric processing language) and dc (a calculator)
URL          : http://www.gnu.org/software/bc/
License      : GPLv2+
...

Docker DNF: Repository

enablerepo Directive

You can use --enablerepo to operate on a single command without permanently enable the repository. The same rule applies to --disablerepo temporarily.

$ dnf info herbstluftwm.src
Last metadata expiration check: 0:09:50 ago on Sat Sep  2 17:47:44 2017.
Error: No matching Packages to list

$ dnf info herbstluftwm.src --enablerepo=rawhide-source
Last metadata expiration check: 0:06:44 ago on Sat Sep  2 17:50:56 2017.
Available Packages
Name         : herbstluftwm
Version      : 0.6.2
Release      : 8.fc27
Arch         : src
Size         : 228 k
Source       : None
Repo         : rawhide-source

Docker DNF: Repository

Mirror

There is no need to explicitly specify mirror, in Fedora since DNF utilize metalink. As you can see in previous figure dnf repoinfo, the rawhide repo is already use ftp.jaist.ac.jp.

$ dnf repoinfo rawhide
...
Repo-baseurl : http://ftp.riken.jp/Linux/fedora/development/rawhide/Everything/x86_64/os/

If you wish you can inspect what is in there. Consider grab the metalink from yum.repos.d.

$ cat /etc/yum.repos.d/fedora-rawhide.repo 
...

[rawhide]
name=Fedora - Rawhide - Developmental packages for the next Fedora release
failovermethod=priority
#baseurl=http://download.fedoraproject.org/pub/fedora/linux/development/rawhide//Everything/$basearch/os/
metalink=https://mirrors.fedoraproject.org/metalink?repo=rawhide&arch=$basearch

...

Now see what is it in the metalink.

$ curl -L "https://mirrors.fedoraproject.org/mirrorlist?repo=rawhide&arch=x86_64"
# repo = rawhide arch = x86_64 country = JP country = PH country = CN country = KR country = TH 
https://ftp.yz.yamagata-u.ac.jp/pub/linux/fedora-projects/fedora/linux/development/rawhide/Everything/x86_64/os/
http://ftp.jaist.ac.jp/pub/Linux/Fedora/development/rawhide/Everything/x86_64/os/
http://ftp.riken.jp/Linux/fedora/development/rawhide/Everything/x86_64/os/
http://ftp.kaist.ac.kr/fedora/development/rawhide/Everything/x86_64/os/
https://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/fedora/development/rawhide/Everything/x86_64/os/
https://mirror.pregi.net/fedora/development/rawhide/Everything/x86_64/os/
http://mirror2.totbb.net/fedora/linux/development/rawhide/Everything/x86_64/os/

Docker DNF: Mirror Metalink

Now we can explicity use ftp.riken.jp.

$ nano /etc/yum.repos.d/fedora-rawhide.repo
baseurl=http://ftp.riken.jp/Linux/fedora/development/rawhide/Everything/x86_64/os/
#baseurl=http://download.fedoraproject.org/pub/fedora/linux/development/rawhide//Everything/$basearch/o$
metalink=https://mirrors.fedoraproject.org/metalink?repo=rawhide&arch=$basearch

Docker YUM: Mirror Base URL

Check what happened to the rawhide repository

$ dnf repoinfo rawhide
Fedora - Rawhide - Developmental packages for the nex 976 kB/s |  66 MB     01:09    
Last metadata expiration check: 0:00:23 ago on Sat Sep  9 11:49:43 2017.
...
Repo-baseurl : http://ftp.riken.jp/Linux/fedora/development/rawhide/Everything/x86_64/os/

This is all about repository for now.


What’s Next

These are just preliminary knowledge about DNF. Consider finish reading [ Part Three ].

Thank you for reading


Epsi Nurwijayadi bio photo
By Epsi Nurwijayadi