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Preface

Goal: Keyboard and mouse binding modules in modularized configuration.

Artefacts

So far, binding configurations can be refactored into five modules. Now consider have another task, moving some configurations to files in main directory.

$ tree binding
binding
├── bindtotags.lua
├── clientbuttons.lua
├── clientkeys.lua
├── globalbuttons.lua
└── globalkeys.lua

0 directories, 5 files

Awesome WM: Artefacts in Binding

We will discuss here about:

  • Mouse Buttons: global, and client. For simplicity reason, we start from mouse buttons, that have fewer configuration codes.

  • keyboard shortcut: global, and client. Be aware of long configuration codes here.

  • And later bind them to tags.

Table of Content

  • Preface: Table of Content

  • 1: Global Buttons

  • 2: Client Buttons

  • 3: Global Keys

  • 4: Client Keys

  • 5: Bind To Tags

  • What is Next ?


1: Global Buttons

You can right click your mouse button to open menu, as you can see in configuration below:

Module Script

-- Standard awesome library
local gears = require("gears")
local awful = require("awful")

local _M = {}

-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --

function _M.get()
  local globalbuttons = gears.table.join(
    awful.button({ }, 3, function () RC.mainmenu:toggle() end),
    awful.button({ }, 4, awful.tag.viewnext),
    awful.button({ }, 5, awful.tag.viewprev)
  )

  return globalbuttons
end

-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --

return setmetatable({}, { 
  __call = function(_, ...) return _M.get(...) end 
})

.

Calling Script

In main configuration:

-- Custom Local Library: Keys and Mouse Binding
local binding = {
  globalbuttons = require("binding.globalbuttons")
}

-- Set root
root.buttons(binding.globalbuttons())

2: Client Buttons

What is client, and what is global?

Now you can also configure, window client response for mouse button click.

Module Script

-- Standard awesome library
local gears = require("gears")
local awful = require("awful")

local _M = {}
local modkey = RC.vars.modkey

-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --

function _M.get()
  local clientbuttons = gears.table.join(
    awful.button({ }, 1, function (c)
        c:emit_signal("request::activate", "mouse_click", {raise = true})
    end),
    awful.button({ modkey }, 1, function (c)
        c:emit_signal("request::activate", "mouse_click", {raise = true})
        awful.mouse.client.move(c)
    end),
    awful.button({ modkey }, 3, function (c)
        c:emit_signal("request::activate", "mouse_click", {raise = true})
        awful.mouse.client.resize(c)
    end)
  )

  return clientbuttons
end

-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --

return setmetatable({}, { 
  __call = function(_, ...) return _M.get(...) end 
})

Try mod+right click window client area__.__ Notice that title bar also has its own binding, as we will describe later.

Calling Script

In main configuration:

-- Custom Local Library: Keys and Mouse Binding
local binding = {
  globalbuttons = require("binding.globalbuttons"),
  clientbuttons = require("binding.clientbuttons")
}

-- Rules
awful.rules.rules = main.rules(
  clientkeys,
  binding.clientbuttons()
)

3: Global Keys

Global keys script is responsible for configuring: popup help, tag browsing, standard program, layout manipulation, prompt, resize/move, and menubar.

Module Script

This is a long script, so I give an minimal example, just to show how it works.

function _M.get()
  local globalkeys = gears.table.join(
    awful.key({ modkey,           }, "s",      hotkeys_popup.show_help,
              {description="show help", group="awesome"}),

    --   -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
    -- Menubar
    awful.key({ modkey }, "p", function() menubar.show() end,
              {description = "show the menubar", group = "launcher"})

  )

  return globalkeys
end

With this mod+s you can popup binding cheatsheet.

Awesome WM: Simple Binding Cheatsheet

Calling Script

In main configuration:

-- Custom Local Library: Keys and Mouse Binding
local binding = {
  globalbuttons = require("binding.globalbuttons"),
  clientbuttons = require("binding.clientbuttons"),
  globalkeys    = require("binding.globalkeys")
}

-- Mouse and Key bindings
RC.globalkeys = binding.globalkeys()

-- Set root
root.buttons(binding.globalbuttons())
root.keys(RC.globalkeys)

Complete Script

Complete scripts has these topics:

  • Tag browsing

  • Standard program

  • Layout manipulation

  • Prompt

  • Resize and Move

  • Menubar

-- Standard awesome library
local gears = require("gears")
local awful = require("awful")
-- local hotkeys_popup = require("awful.hotkeys_popup").widget
local hotkeys_popup = require("awful.hotkeys_popup")
-- Menubar library
local menubar = require("menubar")

-- Resource Configuration
local modkey = RC.vars.modkey
local terminal = RC.vars.terminal

local _M = {}

-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --

function _M.get()
  local globalkeys = gears.table.join(
    awful.key({ modkey,           }, "s",      hotkeys_popup.show_help,
              {description="show help", group="awesome"}),

    --   -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
    -- Menubar
    awful.key({ modkey }, "p", function() menubar.show() end,
              {description = "show the menubar", group = "launcher"})

  )

  return globalkeys
end

-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --

return setmetatable({}, { 
  __call = function(_, ...) return _M.get(...) end 
})

Yeah.. it is a pretty long configuration . That we need to explain part by part.

Standard Program

This is where you want to add your custom application, such as other kind of terminal, or anything.

    awful.key({ modkey,           }, "Return", function () awful.spawn(terminal) end,
              {description = "open a terminal", group = "launcher"}),
    awful.key({ modkey, "Control" }, "r", awesome.restart,
              {description = "reload awesome", group = "awesome"}),
    awful.key({ modkey, "Shift"   }, "q", awesome.quit,
              {description = "quit awesome", group = "awesome"}),

Tag Browsing

    awful.key({ modkey,           }, "Left",   awful.tag.viewprev,
              {description = "view previous", group = "tag"}),
    awful.key({ modkey,           }, "Right",  awful.tag.viewnext,
              {description = "view next", group = "tag"}),
    awful.key({ modkey,           }, "Escape", awful.tag.history.restore,
              {description = "go back", group = "tag"}),

    awful.key({ modkey,           }, "j",
        function ()
            awful.client.focus.byidx( 1)
        end,
        {description = "focus next by index", group = "client"}
    ),
    awful.key({ modkey,           }, "k",
        function ()
            awful.client.focus.byidx(-1)
        end,
        {description = "focus previous by index", group = "client"}
    ),
    awful.key({ modkey,           }, "w", function () RC.mainmenu:show() end,
              {description = "show main menu", group = "awesome"}),

Layout Manipulation

    awful.key({ modkey, "Shift"   }, "j", function () awful.client.swap.byidx(  1)    end,
              {description = "swap with next client by index", group = "client"}),
    awful.key({ modkey, "Shift"   }, "k", function () awful.client.swap.byidx( -1)    end,
              {description = "swap with previous client by index", group = "client"}),
    awful.key({ modkey, "Control" }, "j", function () awful.screen.focus_relative( 1) end,
              {description = "focus the next screen", group = "screen"}),
    awful.key({ modkey, "Control" }, "k", function () awful.screen.focus_relative(-1) end,
              {description = "focus the previous screen", group = "screen"}),
    awful.key({ modkey,           }, "u", awful.client.urgent.jumpto,
              {description = "jump to urgent client", group = "client"}),
    awful.key({ modkey,           }, "Tab",
        function ()
            awful.client.focus.history.previous()
            if client.focus then
                client.focus:raise()
            end
        end,
        {description = "go back", group = "client"}),

Layout Manipulation using Increment

    awful.key({ modkey,           }, "l",     function () awful.tag.incmwfact( 0.05)          end,
              {description = "increase master width factor", group = "layout"}),
    awful.key({ modkey,           }, "h",     function () awful.tag.incmwfact(-0.05)          end,
              {description = "decrease master width factor", group = "layout"}),
    awful.key({ modkey, "Shift"   }, "h",     function () awful.tag.incnmaster( 1, nil, true) end,
              {description = "increase the number of master clients", group = "layout"}),
    awful.key({ modkey, "Shift"   }, "l",     function () awful.tag.incnmaster(-1, nil, true) end,
              {description = "decrease the number of master clients", group = "layout"}),
    awful.key({ modkey, "Control" }, "h",     function () awful.tag.incncol( 1, nil, true)    end,
              {description = "increase the number of columns", group = "layout"}),
    awful.key({ modkey, "Control" }, "l",     function () awful.tag.incncol(-1, nil, true)    end,
              {description = "decrease the number of columns", group = "layout"}),
    awful.key({ modkey,           }, "space", function () awful.layout.inc( 1)                end,
              {description = "select next", group = "layout"}),
    awful.key({ modkey, "Shift"   }, "space", function () awful.layout.inc(-1)                end,
              {description = "select previous", group = "layout"}),

    awful.key({ modkey, "Control" }, "n",
              function ()
                  local c = awful.client.restore()
                  -- Focus restored client
                  if c then
                    c:emit_signal(
                        "request::activate", "key.unminimize", {raise = true}
                    )
                  end
              end,
              {description = "restore minimized", group = "client"}),

Prompt

    awful.key({ modkey },            "r",     function () awful.screen.focused().mypromptbox:run() end,
              {description = "run prompt", group = "launcher"}),

    awful.key({ modkey }, "x",
              function ()
                  awful.prompt.run {
                    prompt       = "Run Lua code: ",
                    textbox      = awful.screen.focused().mypromptbox.widget,
                    exe_callback = awful.util.eval,
                    history_path = awful.util.get_cache_dir() .. "/history_eval"
                  }
              end,
              {description = "lua execute prompt", group = "awesome"}),

Resize and Move

Resize

    awful.key({ modkey, "Control" }, "Down",  
              function () awful.client.moveresize( 0, 0, 0, -20) end),
    awful.key({ modkey, "Control" }, "Up",    
              function () awful.client.moveresize( 0, 0, 0,  20) end),
    awful.key({ modkey, "Control" }, "Left",  
              function () awful.client.moveresize( 0, 0, -20, 0) end),
    awful.key({ modkey, "Control" }, "Right", 
              function () awful.client.moveresize( 0, 0,  20, 0) end),

Move

    awful.key({ modkey, "Shift"   }, "Down",  
              function () awful.client.moveresize(  0,  20,   0,   0) end),
    awful.key({ modkey, "Shift"   }, "Up",    
              function () awful.client.moveresize(  0, -20,   0,   0) end),
    awful.key({ modkey, "Shift"   }, "Left",  
              function () awful.client.moveresize(-20,   0,   0,   0) end),
    awful.key({ modkey, "Shift"   }, "Right", 
              function () awful.client.moveresize( 20,   0,   0,   0) end),

As we already seen in above example code.

    awful.key({ modkey }, "p", function() menubar.show() end,
              {description = "show the menubar", group = "launcher"})

This is where you want to add your custom menu application, such as rofi, dmenu or stuff.


4: Client Keys

Again, we configure the window client.

Global keys script is responsible for configuring: client layout manipulation, maximized (unmaximized), and custom resize/move.

Module Script

This is a long script, so again I give an minimal example, just to show how it works.

-- Standard Awesome library
local gears = require("gears")
local awful = require("awful")

local _M = {}
local modkey = RC.vars.modkey

-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --

function _M.get()
  local clientkeys = gears.table.join(

    --   -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
    -- Original Example Key Bindings
    awful.key({ modkey,           }, "f",
      function (c)
        c.fullscreen = not c.fullscreen
        c:raise()
      end,
      {description = "toggle fullscreen", group = "client"})
  )

  return clientkeys
end

-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --

return setmetatable({}, { 
  __call = function(_, ...) return _M.get(...) end 
})

.

Calling Script

In main configuration:

-- Custom Local Library: Keys and Mouse Binding
local binding = {
  globalbuttons = require("binding.globalbuttons"),
  clientbuttons = require("binding.clientbuttons"),
  globalkeys    = require("binding.globalkeys"),
  clientkeys    = require("binding.clientkeys")
}

-- Rules
awful.rules.rules = main.rules(
  binding.clientkeys(),
  binding.clientbuttons()
)

Client Layout Manipulation

These are the keys binding shortcut, from the original example configutration script.

    awful.key({ modkey,           }, "f",
      function (c)
        c.fullscreen = not c.fullscreen
        c:raise()
      end,
      {description = "toggle fullscreen", group = "client"}),
    awful.key({ modkey, "Shift"   }, "c",      function (c) c:kill()                         end,
              {description = "close", group = "client"}),
    awful.key({ modkey, "Control" }, "space",  awful.client.floating.toggle                     ,
              {description = "toggle floating", group = "client"}),
    awful.key({ modkey, "Control" }, "Return", function (c) c:swap(awful.client.getmaster()) end,
              {description = "move to master", group = "client"}),
    awful.key({ modkey,           }, "o",      function (c) c:move_to_screen()               end,
              {description = "move to screen", group = "client"}),
    awful.key({ modkey,           }, "t",      function (c) c.ontop = not c.ontop            end,
              {description = "toggle keep on top", group = "client"}),
    awful.key({ modkey,           }, "n",
      function (c)
        -- The client currently has the input focus, so it cannot be
        -- minimized, since minimized clients can't have the focus.
        c.minimized = true
      end ,
      {description = "minimize", group = "client"}),

Maximized (Unmaximized)

    -- Maximized
    awful.key({ modkey,           }, "m",
      function (c)
        c.maximized = not c.maximized
        c:raise()
      end ,
      {description = "(un)maximize", group = "client"}),
    awful.key({ modkey, "Control" }, "m",
      function (c)
        c.maximized_vertical = not c.maximized_vertical
        c:raise()
      end ,
      {description = "(un)maximize vertically", group = "client"}),
    awful.key({ modkey, "Shift"   }, "m",
      function (c)
        c.maximized_horizontal = not c.maximized_horizontal
        c:raise()
      end ,
      {description = "(un)maximize horizontally", group = "client"})

Standard Binding

All standard binding can be seen in screenshot figure below:

Awesome WM: Standard Binding Cheatsheet

Custom Fix Size

Beyond those standard binding, I also put an example of custom resize. I need this fix size while making screenshot for blogging.

    awful.key({ modkey, "Mod1"    }, "Up", 
      function (c)   
        c.floating = not c.floating
        c.width    = 480
        c.x        = (c.screen.geometry.width-c.width) * 0.5
        c.height   = 400
        c.y        = (c.screen.geometry.height-c.height) * 0.5
      end ,
      {description = "480px * 400px", group = "client"}),
    awful.key({ modkey, "Mod1"    }, "Down", 
      function (c)   
        c.floating = not c.floating
        c.width    = 480
        c.x        = (c.screen.geometry.width-c.width) * 0.5
        c.height   = 600
        c.y        = (c.screen.geometry.height-c.height) * 0.5
      end ,
      {description = "480px * 600px", group = "client"}),
         awful.key({ modkey, "Mod1"    }, "Left", 
      function (c)   
        c.floating = not c.floating
        c.width    = 600
        c.x        = (c.screen.geometry.width-c.width) * 0.5
        c.height   = c.screen.geometry.height * 0.5
        c.y        = c.screen.geometry.height * 0.25
      end ,
      {description = "600px * 50%", group = "client"}),
    awful.key({ modkey, "Mod1"    }, "Right", 
      function (c)   
        c.floating = not c.floating
        c.width    = 320
        c.x        = (c.screen.geometry.width-c.width) * 0.5
        c.height   = 400
        c.y        = (c.screen.geometry.height-c.height) * 0.5
      end ,
      {description = "800px * 50%", group = "client"}),

I put these codes in the middle. So I do not to worry about removing comma, at the end of this section.

Awesome WM: Custom Binding Fix Size


5: Bind To Tags

This binding is actually part of global keys. This is why we have this code

function _M.get(globalkeys)
  -- Bind all key numbers to tags.
  for i = 1, 9 do
    globalkeys = gears.table.join(globalkeys,
      -- some awful binding here
    )
  end

  return globalkeys
end

.

This consist of these four parts:

  • View tag only.

  • Toggle tag display.

  • Move client to tag.

  • Toggle tag on focused client.

Module Script

-- Standard awesome library
local gears = require("gears")
local awful = require("awful")

local _M = {}
local modkey = RC.vars.modkey

-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
-- Key bindings

function _M.get(globalkeys)
  -- Bind all key numbers to tags.
  -- Be careful: we use keycodes to make it work on any keyboard layout.
  -- This should map on the top row of your keyboard, usually 1 to 9.
  for i = 1, 9 do
    globalkeys = gears.table.join(globalkeys,
      -- View tag only.

      -- Toggle tag display.

      -- Move client to tag.
      
      -- Toggle tag on focused client.
    )
  end

  return globalkeys
end

-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --

return setmetatable({}, { 
  __call = function(_, ...) return _M.get(...) end 
})

.

Calling Script

In main configuration:

-- Custom Local Library: Keys and Mouse Binding
local binding = {
  globalbuttons = require("binding.globalbuttons"),
  clientbuttons = require("binding.clientbuttons"),
  globalkeys    = require("binding.globalkeys"),
  clientkeys    = require("binding.clientkeys"),
  bindtotags    = require("binding.bindtotags")
}

-- Mouse and Key bindings
RC.globalkeys = binding.globalkeys()
RC.globalkeys = binding.bindtotags(RC.globalkeys)

-- Set root
root.buttons(binding.globalbuttons())
root.keys(RC.globalkeys)

View Tag only

      awful.key({ modkey }, "#" .. i + 9,
        function ()
          local screen = awful.screen.focused()
          local tag = screen.tags[i]
          if tag then
            tag:view_only()
          end
        end,
        {description = "view tag #"..i, group = "tag"}),

Toggle Tag Display

      awful.key({ modkey, "Control" }, "#" .. i + 9,
        function ()
          local screen = awful.screen.focused()
          local tag = screen.tags[i]
          if tag then
            awful.tag.viewtoggle(tag)
          end
        end,
        {description = "toggle tag #" .. i, group = "tag"}),

Move Client to Tag.

      awful.key({ modkey, "Shift" }, "#" .. i + 9,
        function ()
          if client.focus then
            local tag = client.focus.screen.tags[i]
            if tag then
              client.focus:move_to_tag(tag)
            end
          end
        end,
        {description = "move focused client to tag #"..i, group = "tag"}),

Toggle Tag on Focused Client.

      awful.key({ modkey, "Control", "Shift" }, "#" .. i + 9,
        function ()
          if client.focus then
            local tag = client.focus.screen.tags[i]
            if tag then
              client.focus:toggle_tag(tag)
            end
          end
        end,
        {description = "toggle focused client on tag #" .. i, group = "tag"})

What is Next ?

Consider continue reading [ Awesome WM - Modularized Structure ]. There are, some interesting topic, about refactoringAwesome WM using Lua.

What do you think ?